2nd and 3rd conditional sentences

We have seen how the zero conditionalthe first conditional and the second conditional are all used to talk about possibility and result in the present and future. The third conditional is what we use to talk about the past. What would have you done if the boss had asked you to work overtime? If my teacher had been stricter with me when I was young, I would have studied harder.

We would have gone for a picnic if the weather had been better. Keep up to date with new materials and news about learning English. If I went to the party, I would be tired tomorrow. If I had gone to the party, I would have been tired. In the first sentence, we use the second conditional because the party is in the future and we are imagining what the situation would be. In the second sentence, the party is in the past. We didn't go but we are imagining what would have happened if we had gone to it.

Don't use would in the if part of the sentence. With ifwe must use the past perfect :. If I had seen Hugo, I would have said hello. If I had gone to the disco on Saturday night, I would have met Sarah. If I had gone to the disco on Saturday night, I would be tired now. In the first sentence, we use the third conditional - a past possible action with the past result.

In the second sentence however, we use a mixed third and second conditional to describe a past possible action third conditional with a present result second conditional. If I had gone to university, my mother would have been happy.

2nd and 3rd conditional sentences

If I had gone to university, I would be a lawyer now. If we had gone to that new restaurant, we wouldn't have got a table as it was so busy. If we had gone to that new restaurant, we wouldn't be hungry now. Our app for both Android and iOS to help you improve your English! Here we are saying we definitely would have gone for a walk if it hadn't rained.

Now compare with this:. This is a little different and means that the possibility to go for a walk would have existed. Here the possibility is smaller still. We can also use "may" in this sentence. Tell your friends about us! Share By Email.Learn conditional definition with examples. There are four types of conditionals in the English language: first conditional, second conditional, third conditional and zero conditional. Conditionals are structures in English that establish what will happen if a certain event takes place or if a certain action is performed.

This means that if a certain condition is true, a certain result occurs. There are four types of commonly used conditionals in the English language that are differentiated on the basis of the degree of possibility implied by each of them. They are the first conditional, the second conditional, the third conditional and the zero conditional. This conditional is used to talk about future events that might happen. It uses the present tense to discuss the possible future events.

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For example:. This conditional is used to talk about the unreal possibility or impossible events. They establish the course of action that would follow, where something to happen is either hypothetical or surreal. This conditional talks about the past, unlike the first and second which discusses events in the real or unreal future. The zero conditional discusses an absolute certainty; the result of the condition is always true.

The most common types of zero conditionals are scientific facts. Zero conditionals, therefore, do not deal with the future or the past; they simply deal with facts. Notify of. Oldest Newest Most Voted. Inline Feedbacks. Suparinee Srimuangkaew. Would love your thoughts, please comment.The order of the clauses can change.

Here are some examples:. A conditional sentence has two clauses that really rely on each other to make sense—a conditional clause which is a dependent clause and a main clause which is the independent clause. The tenses of these clauses determine the type of conditional sentence, which the next section will explain. The main clause is what provides the rest of the information to complete a conditional sentence. In these examples, the main clauses are orange. As you can see, these main clauses express complete thoughts and can be sentences on their own.

But, you can also see that we also need them to complete the thoughts of the dependent clauses! This article will help you understand the basics, and teach you how to recognize a conditional sentence when you see one. Real conditionals also called zero conditionals are sentences expressing the real conditions for things that happen, not hypothetical things see Imagined Conditionals.

They share true statements about things that will happen or do happen in certain conditions or circumstances. Zero conditional sentences can come in many forms. But since they are based in fact, they only share past and present situations, NOT possible future situations. So, we write them using a combination of past and present tenses. Based on the level of possibility, there are three conditionals: first, second, and third.

The first conditional shares the result of situation in the future that we think is pretty likely to happen.

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Its form uses a conditional clause in the present simple, and the main clause in the future tense. The main clause will use a modal, like would, should, could, will, may, might, or can. Of all the conditionals, the first conditional expresses things that are most possible or likely to happen.

As we will explain, with the second and third conditionals, things become less likely or even completely imagined.There are different types of conditions. Some are possible or likely, others are unlikely, and others are impossible:. It is possible or likely that the weather will improve.

Conditional Sentences

If the weather improvedwe could go for a walk. It is not likely that the weather will improve. If the weather had improvedwe could have gone for a walk.

The weather did not improve — fine weather is therefore an impossible condition. These types of conditions are used in three types of sentences, called first, second and third conditional sentences. We use the first conditional to talk about the result of an imagined future situation, when we believe the imagined situation is quite likely:.

We use the modal verb in the main clausenot in the conditional clause. We use the second conditional to talk about the possible result of an imagined situation in the present or future. We say what the conditions must be for the present or future situation to be different. If people complainedthings would change. We use a past form in the conditional clause to indicate a distance from reality, rather than indicating past time. We often use past forms in this way in English.

If you decided to take the exam, you would have to register by 31 March. When we use the first conditional, we think the imagined situation is more likely to happen than when we use the second conditional. If there were more buses, we would leave the car at home. He would buy a flat if he had the money for a deposit.

We use the third conditional when we imagine a different past, where something did or did not happen, and we imagine a different result:. If I had played better, I would have won.

It would have been easier if George had brought his own car. The dog barked, so we knew there was someone in the garden. If he had stayed in the same room as Dave, it would have been a disaster. Not: If he would have stayed … it would have been a disaster. People do sometimes use the form with would have in informal speaking, but many speakers consider it incorrect. Some conditions seem more real to us than others. Real conditionals refer to things that are true, that have happened, or are very likely to happen:.

If you park here, they clamp your wheels. It is always true that they clamp your wheels if, or every time, you park here. In real conditional sentences, we can use the present simple or present continuous in both clauses for present situations, and the past simple or past continuous in both clauses for past situations.

We can use these in various different combinations. Every time this happens, this is what we do. If my father had a day off, we always went to see my granddad.

2nd and 3rd conditional sentences

Every time that happened in the past, that is what we did. Kevin always came in to say hello if he was going past our house. Every time he was going past our house, that is what he did. If we go out, we can usually get a baby sitter. Every time we go out, it is usually possible to get a babysitter. If we wanted someone to fix something, we would ask our neighbour.Are you an English teacher?

Please download this lesson to use in your English class. If you have any questions, or would like to add anything else, please contact me. If it rains, I stay home. The first example is done for you.

Conditionals: First, Second, and Third Conditional in English

If Roscoe is bored, he fishes. If I see her tonight, I will tell her about the party.

2nd and 3rd conditional sentences

Using the first conditional, write a one-sentence response to each future prediction. The first one is done for you. Practice using the imperative with the zero and first conditional: Complete the sentences with your own ideas. Welcome to my house. Call your mom if you have time later. I would walk your dog if I had time. I would go on vacation if I had money.

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I live in Campodimele, Italy. P lease write a five-sentence paragraph about what you would do if world peace were declared tomorrow. Use the second conditional, as this is an unreal possibility. Discuss your answers.

I would have walked your dog if I had had time. I would have gone on vacation if my company had given me the time off. I grew up in Russia.

Learn English Grammar: The 4 Conditionals

Complete the sentences below with the verb in the correct form and tense. Tom had a car accident last week because he was driving too fast. Tom is pretty sure that it will rain tomorrow, so he plans on going to the cinema.

Choose another person a friend or a famous person and write a paragraph describing what your life would be like and would have been like if you had been born as them and now lived their life. Match the correct clauses to form a sentence. Prepare a presentation detailing another scenario or outcome. Mixed Conditionals are used to show how a past condition or possibility affects, or would affect, the present, or vice versa: how a present or general condition affects, or would have affected, the past.Mixed conditionals?

They exist? Yesterday it was the Past Perfect and Present Perfectthe day before learning how to choose the best tense to describe the future.

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Differentiating between the Second Conditional and the Third Conditional is an aspect of the English language many learners have a lot of trouble with. Barring a visit to the University of California Department of Linguistics for an in-depth explanation of the problem, what is a learner to do?

The first sentence is in the Second Conditional, while the second sentence is in the Third Conditional. As you can see, in the first sentence we used Past Simple Tense in the if-clause, and the modal verb would plus the main verb in the main clause. That is the structure of the Third Conditional. And that is how you should always start - noting differences in the grammar. After that, you can start focusing on the meaning behind the grammar, that is the meaning that you want to convey using various grammar structures.

The main difference is that you can use the Second Conditional to describe a result that can happen although it is unlikely that it will, while you use the Third Conditional to describe a situation that could have happened in the past had a condition been met. We use mixed conditionals to make an already difficult portion of the English language even more so. On a more serious note, we use mixed Conditionals to express more nuanced meanings than we could with regular conditional sentences.

There are two types of mixed Conditionals, and in both types, you mix the Second and the Third Conditional. So, if-clause - Past Perfect Tense; Main clause - would and the main verb. This mixed Conditional expresses that there was a condition that could have been fulfilled in the past and that it bears a result in the present. We use this mixed Conditional to express a present condition, i.

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2nd and 3rd conditional sentences

What is the difference between the 2nd and 3rd Conditional? If you listened more carefully in class, you would get better grades in Maths. If you had listened more carefully in class, you would have gotten better grades in maths.

Why do we use mixed conditionals? If she had tried harder, she would be more successful now. If I had more money, I would have gone to France.We use conditional structures to speculate about things that could happen in the future and things that might have happened in the past.

Conditionals are formed by using different verb tenses in the condition part of the sentence and the result part of the sentence, depending on the type of conditional being used. T here are different types of conditionals, mainly: zero conditionals, 1st conditionals, 2nd conditionals and 3rd conditionals; which we use depending on how probable the condition and its result are.

See the table below for a rough guide on which conditional to use depending on how probable it is:. In this article we will focus on 2nd and 3rd conditionals. For information on the zero and first conditional structures, you can see this post. Second conditionals mainly use present and unreal past tenses and describe present or future situations that are not very likely to happen or situations that now are actually impossible but perhaps were possible at some point in the past.

Remember that we can rearrange the two parts of the sentence, with either the condition first and the result after, or the result first and the condition after:. Just make sure you use the correct pronouns so that the subject of the sentence is still clear. For example:. If I was rich, I would travel the world.

I would travel the world if I was rich. As before, these parts can be swapped around:. If it had started to rain, the picnic would have been cancelled. Here, in reality, it did not rain and the picnic was not cancelled, but there was a possibility of this potentially happening in the past.

For Example:. If I had studied harder, I would have passed my exam. It is too late for this condition to become true. This can be confusing when it occurs in the 3rd conditional which uses both words in the same sentence. Compare the difference in meaning in the examples below:. If he invited me, I would go to his party unlikely but still possible.

If he had invited me, I would have gone to his party in the past — impossible. In the 3rd conditional sentence, the reality is that the speaker was not invited and did not go to the party, although it was possible in the past.

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